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Exposure Limits: The underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children

Overview of attention for article published in Electromagnetic Biology & Medicine, October 2011
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • One of the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#5 of 257)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (99th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
21 news outlets
blogs
1 blog
twitter
38 tweeters
facebook
11 Facebook pages
wikipedia
1 Wikipedia page
googleplus
5 Google+ users
reddit
1 Redditor
video
1 video uploader

Citations

dimensions_citation
73 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
76 Mendeley
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Title
Exposure Limits: The underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children
Published in
Electromagnetic Biology & Medicine, October 2011
DOI 10.3109/15368378.2011.622827
Pubmed ID
Authors

Om P. Gandhi, L. Lloyd Morgan, Alvaro Augusto de Salles, Yueh-Ying Han, Ronald B. Herberman, Devra Lee Davis

Abstract

The existing cell phone certification process uses a plastic model of the head called the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), representing the top 10% of U.S. military recruits in 1989 and greatly underestimating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for typical mobile phone users, especially children. A superior computer simulation certification process has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but is not employed to certify cell phones. In the United States, the FCC determines maximum allowed exposures. Many countries, especially European Union members, use the "guidelines" of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a non governmental agency. Radiofrequency (RF) exposure to a head smaller than SAM will absorb a relatively higher SAR. Also, SAM uses a fluid having the average electrical properties of the head that cannot indicate differential absorption of specific brain tissue, nor absorption in children or smaller adults. The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child's head's absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull's bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 38 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 76 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Iran, Islamic Republic of 1 1%
Finland 1 1%
Unknown 74 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 16 21%
Student > Master 14 18%
Student > Ph. D. Student 13 17%
Other 7 9%
Student > Bachelor 6 8%
Other 17 22%
Unknown 3 4%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Engineering 14 18%
Medicine and Dentistry 13 17%
Social Sciences 10 13%
Computer Science 6 8%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 6 8%
Other 24 32%
Unknown 3 4%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 213. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 24 October 2019.
All research outputs
#64,000
of 13,906,652 outputs
Outputs from Electromagnetic Biology & Medicine
#5
of 257 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#290
of 108,499 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Electromagnetic Biology & Medicine
#1
of 3 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,906,652 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 99th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 257 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 12.1. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 108,499 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 99% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 3 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them